House and Cottage

How to make heating in a country house - a real example

When building your own home, one of thethe cornerstone is heating. I would like to immediately make it of high quality and durable, so that later you do not have to redo it. How to start designing, choosing installers and installing a heating system, using the example of a real house, will be discussed in our huge material.Everyone who has yet to meet with designers, installers and engineers will benefit from the information from this article. They will help you avoid mistakes, save time and money, and also give a clear understanding of how to organize heating in your own home. We specially took a real project and attracted specialists responsible for it. One of the professionals is Aleksey Markovets, Project Manager for Service Development at Hogarth. We strongly advise you to arm yourself with at least basic knowledge on this issue, otherwise financial losses are almost inevitable. Because the organization of heating is a large-scale process that includes a lot of nuances and features. Before proceeding directly to the installation of systems, you need a project, no matter how trite it may sound. Moreover, this does not depend on the complexity of the construction of the house and the professionalism of the installer. Step 1.Project What is it for? A project is a modeling on paper of what will be built. It is the easiest way to work out various shortcomings and mistakes so that in the future they do not have to be redone at the facility by the builders. At the design stage, you can always see which devices and in what place are planned to be installed, as well as exclude or minimize the risks that will arise at the construction site in connection with the completion or alteration of any units. In addition, the project is a platform for the user's fantasies, which can be realized by the hands of the designer. Step 2.The choice of designers If you need to work out some part of the project or redo it, then they turn to freelancers. For example, just pick up the radiators and draw their placement. And for other questions, you should contact companies that are engaged in a comprehensive range of works, that is, the architectural component, and heating, ventilation, and water treatment. Any serious trade organization, as a rule, has a certain list of designers (or architectural and design bureaus) with whom it cooperates on an ongoing basis. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - It is better to focus on this list. Why? It's simple - sellers will not offer you a bad designer, since it is not profitable for them. There is a risk of losing the client in this case. So do not hesitate - ask questions about the companies with which your heating equipment suppliers cooperate. There is another option, the most ambitious andthe least common is design organizations working together with builders. This is very convenient for the user, since in one company you can both make a project and calculate an estimate. As for installers with rich practical experience, they can design and select equipment, but agreements with them need to be fixed in the form of a draft design or an agreed plan, which will need to be addressed in case of problems. The project of the house under consideration was prepared by the architect Sergei Timofeev. Step 3.Understand the types of systems For a competent and reasoned choice, it is necessary to understand what heating systems are now on the market, what are their advantages and disadvantages. The easiest place to start is with heat sources and the types of fuels they use.

  • Solid fuel equipment

This part of the heating equipment is goodknown to all of us by Russian stoves from the homes of our grandparents. Now they, of course, look different - it's a steel stove that integrates into a wall portal or just stands as an independent product. The very principle of action has come down to our days almost without changes - we serve firewood and air, we light, we warm it, we put it. But the construction of heating devices has greatly stepped forward. One of the main advantages is independence from gas,therefore, such boilers are usually selected as backup. You can also note the simple design and ease of installation, and they are used when there is no desire to install a separate burner. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - Solid fuel equipment can be roughly divided into decorative and practical. The first is fireplaces, the main function of which is beauty. Second - various boilers that can operate on wood, on pellets, on wood shavings. I would recommend automatic fuel delivery systems so that you don't have to walk around and put fuel in the firebox. In this case, the main question will be where to install the pellet hopper - for this you need free space.

  • Gas heaters

The most widespread typeequipment is used in 80 percent of cases. The market is saturated with this type of heating system, there is always plenty to choose from. Conveniently, there is no need to constantly add fuel, you just need to turn on the gas boiler - and you don't even have to think about it. Of the minuses, it is worth noting the fact that this equipment is volatile, it requires electricity and periodic maintenance. Alexey Markovets, "Hogarth": - Regarding the price, main gas is the most preferable as a source of fuel. For ease of use, perhaps, is also the best option. In this case, the main condition is that a gas pipe is connected to your site. The rest is a matter of technology.

  • Electric heating systems

Electric, like solid-fuel systemsheating, are used for redundancy and - very rarely - for self-supply (as expensive). But in those cases when there is no gas or it is known that it will not be a certain number of months / years, the electric boiler will be the right choice for heating small areas. Pros: Gas is not needed, simple installation (on the hydraulic part it is very similar to a gas boiler), there is no chimney, simplicity of control.

  • Heliosystems

This is the most underdeveloped type now.power supply, but very promising. Initially, long before the appearance of modern panels, it was in the southern regions that they began to actively use the sun for heating. People put containers painted black on the roofs, and they were heated until evening. Today the process has reached a new level, advanced systems are used, which so far cannot become the main source of heat. Only for additional heating or maintaining the temperature in the heating system. But in transitional periods it can be used as an independent source of energy, and free of charge. Plus - independence from gas supply.

  • Mixed heating systems

There are more and more objects in whichit is this type of system that applies. They are actively developed by all manufacturers of solid fuel and gas equipment. The specificity is that it is a complex of all the systems described above. Gas heating devices or a solar system can be put in the first place, and if the need arises, it will be possible to choose in favor of one or another equipment. Step 4. Selecting the required heating system Mixed heating system - it was decided to use it in the project. In reality, this is a gas equipment with the possibility of connecting a solar collector in the future, which will provide not only an additional flow of energy, but will also significantly save energy on sunny days. Also, this option is much more environmentally friendly. Do not forget about redundancy - independence from possible breakdowns or outages. Now among the installation and design organizations, the most popular solution is to use several boilers for one heating system in order to distribute the load and increase the resource of each. Step 5.Heating installation Since we describe the entire selection and installation process on the example of one specific project, it would be logical to continue the description of the work progress. The first thing to determine is the object that needs to be heated. That is, it is necessary to highlight the main areas that require heat. These can be both living quarters and usually unheated corridors, conservatories or a garage. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - The project under consideration has 2 floors, and both tiers must be heated. The amount of heat that needs to be generated by my boiler depends on two main factors - the size of the house and the materials of the walls. The more insulated the walls, the less heat will be required to heat the entire area. The materials of the floor, ceiling and windows also need to be considered for thermal insulation. The number of insulating glass units directly affects the leakage rate. The goal is to minimize heat loss throughwindows, walls, floor and ceiling, and then the amount of heat required to heat the house will be minimal. The house is a monolithic-frame structure, the walls are made of foam blocks and additionally insulated with mineral wool. The ceiling is a one-piece concrete floor, which can also be insulated (for example, with penoplex). The "warm floor" system is also provided. There are many windows, some - from floor to ceiling, so heat loss will be great. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - A radiator in a house is usually placed under a window opening. In our case, the windows are full-length, so it will not work to place radiators under them. The project uses floor convectors. In fact, this is the same radiator that is built into the floor so as not to take up space from the outside, and with an upward flow cuts off the air flows coming from the window and located in the room. Thus, the outflow of heat is cut off, and the room is kept warm. There are also ordinary rooms in the house, so steel panel radiators are used there. As for underfloor heating, they can now both heat houses and leave them as a backup source of heating. In our project, they are installed in the kitchen, combining heating with floor convectors and a "warm floor" system. And this is the first branch of the load on the entire heating structure of the house. Step 6.Hot water preparation This also applies directly to heating. The water must be heated. In our project, it is taken from a well located on the site and fed to the mixers, passing through the boiler. The most common option is to use an indirect heating boiler. The principle of operation is as follows: the coolant from the heating system through a special valve is supplied to the boiler and heats the water in it to the desired temperature (usually 60-70 ° C), after which it is distributed to the points of consumption. It is a comfortable, stable and convenient option that is much easier to service than a secondary plate heat exchanger. In addition, there is always a supply of hot water in the boiler, which insures against temperature changes. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - There are also options with the use of a secondary plate heat exchanger, in which the streams of hot and cold water circulating in the system meet, changing the temperature of each other. If there are few points of consumption, then such a simple option will be cheaper. But there is also a minus - this system is more susceptible to temperature fluctuations, that is, due to design features, it is more difficult for it to withstand the DHW temperature. It is also more sensitive to the appearance of scale and requires regular flushing, which cannot be said about an indirect heating boiler. Step 7.Ventilation Ventilation is also integrated into the heating system. This is especially true for large houses, where the air vents alone are not enough for ventilation. Therefore, a forced air supply and exhaust system is our choice. Alexey Markovets, Hogarth: - When working with the ventilation system, our task is to warm up the cold air that comes from the street so that the room is comfortable. For this, air handling units with recuperation are used (exchange of heat from the exhaust and incoming air). Plus, you can install additional heat exchangers for the air supply to additionally heat it. Specifically in this house, it is planned to install a recuperator. Step 8. Water treatment and water disposal Water treatment is also connected with heating. A preliminary chemical analysis is extremely important, because if you do not know what is in the water, and do not clean it in advance from various harmful inclusions, rusty streaks will form (caused by the content of iron oxides in the water) or calcium salt deposits (scale familiar to everyone) in the equipment and on plumbing. To avoid such problems, you should take care of the quality of the water. And for the drainage of used water, polypropylene sewer pipes are perfect. Step 9.Gas supply It is necessary to select equipment with the highest efficiency. In our house project we have a gas condensing boiler with a boiler and a solar collector. The collector is good because it allows you to heat the water precisely due to the energy of the sun. Therefore, we will design the system so that it will be possible to connect it in the future. Having carefully worked through these nine steps, you can alreadynothing to worry about when building your own home. At least with heating and all the accompanying systems, everything will be in perfect order, they will serve properly, long and as efficiently as possible.